Texas Essential Knowledge and skills - Learning requirements

  • Below are  the learning requirements for kindergarten in the state of state of Texas. 


    revised August 2013 

     Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Kindergarten 

    §110.11. English Language Arts and Reading 

    §111.12. Mathematics 

    §112.11. Science 

    §113.11. Social Studies 

    §114.2. Languages Other Than English 

    §115.2. Health Education 

    §116.2. Physical Education 

    §117.2. Art 

    §117.3. Music 

    §117.4. Theatre 

    §126.6. Technology Applications 

    §110.11. English Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010. 

    (a) Introduction. 

    (1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect the major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report. In Kindergarten, students engage in activities that build on their natural curiosity and prior knowledge to develop their reading, writing, and oral language skills. 

    (2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition. 

    (A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation. 

    (B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.revised August 2013 

    (C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously. 

    (3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Kindergarten as described in subsection (b) of this section. 

    (4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation. 

    (b) Knowledge and skills. 

    (1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how English is written and printed. Students are expected to: 

    (A) recognize that spoken words can be represented by print for communication; 

    (B) identify upper- and lower-case letters; 

    (C) demonstrate the one-to-one correspondence between a spoken word and a printed word in text; 

    (D) recognize the difference between a letter and a printed word; 

    (E) recognize that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and demonstrate the awareness of word boundaries (e.g., through kinesthetic or tactile actions such as clapping and jumping); 

    (F) hold a book right side up, turn its pages correctly, and know that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right; and 

    (G) identify different parts of a book (e.g., front and back covers, title page). 

    (2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to: 

    (A) identify a sentence made up of a group of words; 

    (B) identify syllables in spoken words;revised August 2013 

    (C) orally generate rhymes in response to spoken words (e.g., "What rhymes with hat?"); 

    (D) distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs; 

    (E) recognize spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound (e.g., "baby boy bounces the ball"); 

    (F) blend spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words (e.g., onset/c/ and rime/at/ make cat); 

    (G) blend spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words (e.g.,/m/ …/a/ …/n/ says man); 

    (H) isolate the initial sound in one-syllable spoken words; and 

    (I) segment spoken one-syllable words into two to three phonemes (e.g., dog:/d/ …/o/ …/g/). 

    (3) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students are expected to: 

    (A) identify the common sounds that letters represent; 

    (B) use knowledge of letter-sound relationships to decode regular words in text and independent of content (e.g., VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words); 

    (C) recognize that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted; and 

    (D) identify and read at least 25 high-frequency words from a commonly used list. 

    (4) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to: 

    (A) predict what might happen next in text based on the cover, title, and illustrations; and 

    (B) ask and respond to questions about texts read aloud. 

    (5) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it correctly when reading and writing. Students are expected to: 

    (A) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations; 

    (B) recognize that compound words are made up of shorter words; 

    (C) identify and sort pictures of objects into conceptual categories (e.g., colors, shapes, textures); and 

    (D) use a picture dictionary to find words.revised August 2013 

    (6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: 

    (A) identify elements of a story including setting, character, and key events; 

    (B) discuss the big idea (theme) of a well-known folktale or fable and connect it to personal experience; 

    (C) recognize sensory details; and 

    (D) recognize recurring phrases and characters in traditional fairy tales, lullabies, and folktales from various cultures. 

    (7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to respond to rhythm and rhyme in poetry through identifying a regular beat and similarities in word sounds. 

    (8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: 

    (A) retell a main event from a story read aloud; and 

    (B) describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions. 

    (9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic of an informational text heard. 

    (10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text, and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: 

    (A) identify the topic and details in expository text heard or read, referring to the words and/or illustrations; 

    (B) retell important facts in a text, heard or read; 

    (C) discuss the ways authors group information in text; and 

    (D) use titles and illustrations to make predictions about text.revised August 2013 

    (11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to: 

    (A) follow pictorial directions (e.g., recipes, science experiments); and 

    (B) identify the meaning of specific signs (e.g., traffic signs, warning signs). 

    (12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to: 

    (A) identify different forms of media (e.g., advertisements, newspapers, radio programs); and 

    (B) identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement). 

    (13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to: 

    (A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing through class discussion; 

    (B) develop drafts by sequencing the action or details in the story; 

    (C) revise drafts by adding details or sentences; 

    (D) edit drafts by leaving spaces between letters and words; and 

    (E) share writing with others. 

    (14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to: 

    (A) dictate or write sentences to tell a story and put the sentences in chronological sequence; and 

    (B) write short poems. 

    (15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to dictate or write information for lists, captions, or invitations. 

    (16) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to: 

    (A) understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking (with adult assistance): 

    (i) past and future tenses when speaking;revised August 2013 

    (ii) nouns (singular/plural); 

    (iii) descriptive words; 

    (iv) prepositions and simple prepositional phrases appropriately when speaking or writing (e.g., in, on, under, over); and 

    (v) pronouns (e.g., I, me); 

    (B) speak in complete sentences to communicate; and 

    (C) use complete simple sentences. 

    (17) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to: 

    (A) form upper- and lower-case letters legibly using the basic conventions of print (left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression); 

    (B) capitalize the first letter in a sentence; and 

    (C) use punctuation at the end of a sentence. 

    (18) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to: 

    (A) use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters; 

    (B) use letter-sound correspondences to spell consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words (e.g., "cut"); and 

    (C) write one's own name. 

    (19) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to: 

    (A) ask questions about topics of class-wide interest; and 

    (B) decide what sources or people in the classroom, school, library, or home can answer these questions. 

    (20) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to: 

    (A) gather evidence from provided text sources; and 

    (B) use pictures in conjunction with writing when documenting research.revised August 2013 

    (21) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to: 

    (A) listen attentively by facing speakers and asking questions to clarify information; and 

    (B) follow oral directions that involve a short related sequence of actions. 

    (22) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language. 

    (23) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns and speaking one at a time. 

    Reading and Comprehension Skills—Kindergarten 

    Figure: 19 TAC §110.10(b) 

    Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to: 

    (A) discuss the purposes for reading and listening to various texts (e.g., to become involved in real and imagined events, settings, actions, and to enjoy language); 

    (B) ask and respond to questions about text; 

    (C) monitor and adjust comprehension (e.g., using background knowledge, creating sensory images, rereading a portion aloud); 

    (D) make inferences based on the cover, title, illustrations, and plot; 

    (E) retell or act out important events in stories; and 

    (F) make connections to own experiences, to ideas in other texts, and to the larger community and discuss textual evidence. 

    §111.12. Mathematics, Kindergarten. 

    (a) Introduction. 

    (1) Within a well-balanced mathematics curriculum, the primary focal points at Kindergarten are developing whole-number concepts and using patterns and sorting to explore number, data, and shape.revised August 2013 

    (2) Throughout mathematics in Kindergarten-Grade 2, students build a foundation of basic understandings in number, operation, and quantitative reasoning; patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking; geometry and spatial reasoning; measurement; and probability and statistics. Students use numbers in ordering, labeling, and expressing quantities and relationships to solve problems and translate informal language into mathematical language and symbols. Students use objects to create and identify patterns and use those patterns to express relationships, make predictions, and solve problems as they build an understanding of number, operation, shape, and space. Students progress from informal to formal language to describe two- and three-dimensional geometric figures and likenesses in the physical world. Students begin to develop measurement concepts as they identify and compare attributes of objects and situations. Students collect, organize, and display data and use information from graphs to answer questions, make summary statements, and make informal predictions based on their experiences. 

    (3) Throughout mathematics in Kindergarten-Grade 2, students develop numerical fluency with conceptual understanding and computational accuracy. Students in Kindergarten-Grade 2 use basic number sense to compose and decompose numbers in order to solve problems requiring precision, estimation, and reasonableness. By the end of Grade 2, students know basic addition and subtraction facts and are using them to work flexibly, efficiently, and accurately with numbers during addition and subtraction computation. 

    (4) Problem solving, language and communication, connections within and outside mathematics, and formal and informal reasoning underlie all content areas in mathematics. Throughout mathematics in Kindergarten-Grade 2, students use these processes together with technology and other mathematical tools such as manipulative materials to develop conceptual understanding and solve meaningful problems as they do mathematics. 

    (b) Knowledge and skills. 

    (K.1) Number, operation, and quantitative reasoning. The student uses numbers to name quantities. The student is expected to: 

    (A) use one-to-one correspondence and language such as more than, same number as, or two less than to describe relative sizes of sets of concrete objects; 

    (B) use sets of concrete objects to represent quantities given in verbal or written form (through 20); and 

    (C) use numbers to describe how many objects are in a set (through 20) using verbal and symbolic descriptions. 

    (K.2) Number, operation, and quantitative reasoning. The student describes order of events or objects. The student is expected to: 

    (A) use language such as before or after to describe relative position in a sequence of events or objects; and 

    (B) name the ordinal positions in a sequence such as first, second, third, etc.revised August 2013 

    (K.3) Number, operation, and quantitative reasoning. The student recognizes that there are quantities less than a whole. The student is expected to: 

    (A) share a whole by separating it into two equal parts; and 

    (B) explain why a given part is half of the whole. 

    (K.4) Number, operation, and quantitative reasoning. The student models addition (joining) and subtraction (separating). The student is expected to model and create addition and subtraction problems in real situations with concrete objects. 

    (K.5) Patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking. The student identifies, extends, and creates patterns. The student is expected to identify, extend, and create patterns of sounds, physical movement, and concrete objects. 

    (K.6) Patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking. The student uses patterns to make predictions. The student is expected to: 

    (A) use patterns to predict what comes next, including cause-and-effect relationships; and 

    (B) count by ones to 100. 

    (K.7) Geometry and spatial reasoning. The student describes the relative positions of objects. The student is expected to: 

    (A) describe one object in relation to another using informal language such as over, under, above, and below; and 

    (B) place an object in a specified position. 

    (K.8) Geometry and spatial reasoning. The student uses attributes to determine how objects are alike and different. The student is expected to: 

    (A) describe and identify an object by its attributes using informal language; 

    (B) compare two objects based on their attributes; and 

    (C) sort a variety of objects including two- and three-dimensional geometric figures according to their attributes and describe how the objects are sorted. 

    (K.9) Geometry and spatial reasoning. The student recognizes attributes of two- and three-dimensional geometric figures. The student is expected to: 

    (A) describe and compare the attributes of real-life objects such as balls, boxes, cans, and cones or models of three-dimensional geometric figures; 

    (B) recognize shapes in real-life three-dimensional geometric figures or models of three-dimensional geometric figures; andrevised August 2013 

    (C) describe, identify, and compare circles, triangles, rectangles, and squares (a special type of rectangle). 

    (K.10) Measurement. The student directly compares the attributes of length, area, weight/mass, capacity, and/or relative temperature. The student uses comparative language to solve problems and answer questions. The student is expected to: 

    (A) compare and order two or three concrete objects according to length (longer/shorter than, or the same); 

    (B) compare the areas of two flat surfaces of two-dimensional figures (covers more, covers less, or covers the same); 

    (C) compare two containers according to capacity (holds more, holds less, or holds the same); 

    (D) compare two objects according to weight/mass (heavier than, lighter than or equal to); and 

    (E) compare situations or objects according to relative temperature (hotter/colder than, or the same as). 

    (K.11) Measurement. The student uses time to describe, compare, and order events and situations. The student is expected to: 

    (A) compare events according to duration such as more time than or less time than; 

    (B) sequence events (up to three); and 

    (C) read a calendar using days, weeks, and months. 

    (K.12) Probability and statistics. The student constructs and uses graphs of real objects or pictures to answer questions. The student is expected to: 

    (A) construct graphs using real objects or pictures in order to answer questions; and 

    (B) use information from a graph of real objects or pictures in order to answer questions. 

    (K.13) Underlying processes and mathematical tools. The student applies Kindergarten mathematics to solve problems connected to everyday experiences and activities in and outside of school. The student is expected to: 

    (A) identify mathematics in everyday situations; 

    (B) solve problems with guidance that incorporates the processes of understanding the problem, making a plan, carrying out the plan, and evaluating the solution for reasonableness; 

    (C) select or develop an appropriate problem-solving strategy including drawing a picture, looking for a pattern, systematic guessing and checking, or acting it out in order to solve a problem; andrevised August 2013 

    (D) use tools such as real objects, manipulatives, and technology to solve problems. 

    (K.14) Underlying processes and mathematical tools. The student communicates about Kindergarten mathematics using informal language. The student is expected to: 

    (A) communicate mathematical ideas using objects, words, pictures, numbers, and technology; and 

    (B) relate everyday language to mathematical language and symbols. 

    (K.15) Underlying processes and mathematical tools. The student uses logical reasoning. The student is expected to justify his or her thinking using objects, words, pictures, numbers, and technology. 

    §112.11. Science, Kindergarten, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011. 

    (a) Introduction. 

    (1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." 

    (2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy. 

    (3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time. 

    (4) In Kindergarten, students observe and describe the natural world using their five senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms. 

    (A) A central theme throughout the study of scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations. 

    (B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size and mass, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, heat, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored. 

    (C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. Other patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.revised August 2013 

    (D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate the life cycle of plants and identify likenesses between parents and offspring. 

    (b) Knowledge and skills. 

    (1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to: 

    (A) identify and demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles, washing hands, and using materials appropriately; 

    (B) discuss the importance of safe practices to keep self and others safe and healthy; and 

    (C) demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reusing or recycling paper, plastic, and metal. 

    (2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to: 

    (A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world; 

    (B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations such as ways objects move; 

    (C) collect data and make observations using simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, and non-standard measurement tools; 

    (D) record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words; and 

    (E) communicate observations with others about simple descriptive investigations. 

    (3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to: 

    (A) identify and explain a problem such as the impact of littering on the playground and propose a solution in his/her own words; 

    (B) make predictions based on observable patterns in nature such as the shapes of leaves; and 

    (C) explore that scientists investigate different things in the natural world and use tools to help in their investigations.revised August 2013 

    (4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to: 

    (A) collect information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices, including clocks and timers; non-standard measuring items such as paper clips and clothespins; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers and wind socks; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and 

    (B) use senses as a tool of observation to identify properties and patterns of organisms, objects, and events in the environment. 

    (5) Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to: 

    (A) observe and record properties of objects, including relative size and mass, such as bigger or smaller and heavier or lighter, shape, color, and texture; and 

    (B) observe, record, and discuss how materials can be changed by heating or cooling. 

    (6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy, force, and motion are related and are a part of their everyday life. The student is expected to: 

    (A) use the five senses to explore different forms of energy such as light, heat, and sound; 

    (B) explore interactions between magnets and various materials; 

    (C) observe and describe the location of an object in relation to another such as above, below, behind, in front of, and beside; and 

    (D) observe and describe the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zigzag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow. 

    (7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to: 

    (A) observe, describe, compare, and sort rocks by size, shape, color, and texture; 

    (B) observe and describe physical properties of natural sources of water, including color and clarity; and 

    (C) give examples of ways rocks, soil, and water are useful. 

    (8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to: 

    (A) observe and describe weather changes from day to day and over seasons;revised August 2013 

    (B) identify events that have repeating patterns, including seasons of the year and day and night; and 

    (C) observe, describe, and illustrate objects in the sky such as the clouds, Moon, and stars, including the Sun. 

    (9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that plants and animals have basic needs and depend on the living and nonliving things around them for survival. The student is expected to: 

    (A) differentiate between living and nonliving things based upon whether they have basic needs and produce offspring; and 

    (B) examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs such as food, water, and shelter for animals and air, water, nutrients, sunlight, and space for plants. 

    (10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to: 

    (A) sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics such as color, size, body covering, or leaf shape; 

    (B) identify parts of plants such as roots, stem, and leaves and parts of animals such as head, eyes, and limbs; 

    (C) identify ways that young plants resemble the parent plant; and 

    (D) observe changes that are part of a simple life cycle of a plant: seed, seedling, plant, flower, and fruit. 

    §113.11. Social Studies, Kindergarten, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012. 

    (a) Introduction. 

    (1) In Kindergarten, the study of the self, home, family, and classroom establishes the foundation for responsible citizenship in society. Students explore state and national heritage by examining the celebration of patriotic holidays and the contributions of individuals. The concept of chronology is introduced. Students apply geographic concepts of location and physical and human characteristics of place. Students identify basic human needs and ways people meet these needs. Students learn the purpose of rules and the role of authority figures in the home and school. Students learn customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. Students compare family customs and traditions and describe examples of technology in the home and school. Students acquire information from a variety of oral and visual sources. Students practice problem-solving, decision-making, and independent-thinking skills. 

    (2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.revised August 2013 

    (3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples. 

    (4) Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system. 

    (5) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h). 

    (6) Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution. 

    (7) Students must demonstrate learning performance related to any federal and state mandates regarding classroom instruction. Although Kindergarten is not required to participate in Celebrate Freedom Week, according to the TEC, §29.907, primary grades lay the foundation for subsequent learning. As a result, Kindergarten Texas essential knowledge and skills include standards related to this patriotic observance. 

    (8) Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents. 

    (b) Knowledge and skills. 

    (1) History. The student understands that holidays are celebrations of special events. The student is expected to: 

    (A) explain the reasons for national patriotic holidays such as Presidents' Day, Veterans Day, and Independence Day; and 

    (B) identify customs associated with national patriotic holidays such as parades and fireworks on Independence Day. 

    (2) History. The student understands how historical figures, patriots, and good citizens helped shape the community, state, and nation. The student is expected to: 

    (A) identify contributions of historical figures, including Stephen F. Austin, George Washington, Christopher Columbus, and José Antonio Navarro, who helped to shape the state and nation; and 

    (B) identify contributions of patriots and good citizens who have shaped the community. 

    (3) History. The student understands the concept of chronology. The student is expected to: 

    (A) place events in chronological order; andrevised August 2013 

    (B) use vocabulary related to time and chronology, including before, after, next, first, last, yesterday, today, and tomorrow. 

    (4) Geography. The student understands the concept of location. The student is expected to: 

    (A) use terms, including over, under, near, far, left, and right, to describe relative location; 

    (B) locate places on the school campus and describe their relative locations; and 

    (C) identify tools that aid in determining location, including maps and globes. 

    (5) Geography. The student understands physical and human characteristics of place. The student is expected to: 

    (A) identify the physical characteristics of place such as landforms, bodies of water, natural resources, and weather; and 

    (B) identify how the human characteristics of place such as ways of earning a living, shelter, clothing, food, and activities are based upon geographic location. 

    (6) Economics. The student understands that basic human needs and wants are met in many ways. The student is expected to: 

    (A) identify basic human needs of food, clothing, and shelter; 

    (B) explain the difference between needs and wants; and 

    (C) explain how basic human needs can be met such as through self-producing, purchasing, and trading. 

    (7) Economics. The student understands the value of jobs. The student is expected to: 

    (A) identify jobs in the home, school, and community; and 

    (B) explain why people have jobs. 

    (8) Government. The student understands the purpose of rules. The student is expected to: 

    (A) identify purposes for having rules; and 

    (B) identify rules that provide order, security, and safety in the home and school. 

    (9) Government. The student understands the role of authority figures. The student is expected to: 

    (A) identify authority figures in the home, school, and community; and 

    (B) explain how authority figures make and enforce rules.revised August 2013 

    (10) Citizenship. The student understands important symbols, customs, and responsibilities that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to o